Ambition, fossil fuels, financial aid to poor countries … The 200 or more signatories to the Paris Agreement will hand over work on Saturday to try to finally pull the COP26 agreement aimed at slowing global warming.
After two weeks of close talks on more than 120 heads of state, all kinds of announcements about forests or methane and many explosive issues, the Glasgow Climate Conference is, surprisingly, an extension. Controlling global warming to 1.5 ° C compared to the pre-industrial period requires at least one more day to try to “stay alive”, the most ambitious goal of the Paris Agreement.
On Friday evening, after the theoretical conclusion of the conference, the British Presidency gave a meeting at 8:00 a.m., after another night of consultation, for the third edition of the text of the final declaration. Saturday day.
The second edition of the text, published Friday morning, is far from unanimous, attracting criticism from all quarters.
At the center of the tensions, the financial envelope to help poor countries – which have little responsibility for climate change but is at the forefront of countering its impacts – is preparing to reduce their emissions and deal with storms, heat waves and increasing droughts.
“We have to put money on the table (…) to help make the necessary changes for developing countries, and this is what will happen in the coming hours,” Prime Minister Boris Johnson told the BBC on Friday afternoon.
In 2009, the northern nations pledged to increase their climate aid to the south to $ 100 billion a year by 2020. But the promise has not yet been kept, sharpening their hatred in the midst of a health crisis that will increase the burden on developing countries.
They believe the latest version of the text did not meet their demands.
Beyond the coded question of 100 billion and “broken hope”, developing countries have put on the table plans to develop a specific mechanism for taking into account “loss and damage”, i.e. damage already caused by catastrophic impacts. Rising storms, droughts and heat waves.
– Responsibilities –
According to many observers, the opposition of rich countries is now in vain. “The United States and the European Union are blocking this proposal (…) rich countries are blocking funding for losses and damages at every stage,” condemned Gabriela Butcher, an Oxfam volunteer.
The South also accuses developed countries of wanting to do more to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions when they are not responsible for climate change.
“Keep your promises and acknowledge your responsibility for the crisis.” Nothing more, nothing less. ”
In an effort to curb global warming, the interim text of the British Presidency, beginning in 2022, calls on member states to continue raising their pledge to reduce emissions beyond what is provided in the Paris Agreement. The “possibility of adjustment in special national circumstances” was added compared to the first edition, prompting criticism from NGOs over the real ambition of countries to control global warming.
Despite new pledges for the 2030 deadline, the UN says the world is still heading for a “catastrophic” warming of 2.7 C, shortly before and shortly after the start of the COP. Warming to about 1.1 C is already contributing to the increase in disasters.
Fossil fuels, the main cause of global warming, are another important issue at the center of negotiations.
Although the Paris Agreement did not mention them, the latest draft declaration was softened compared to the first edition of their financing publication. Without satisfying anyone.